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BibleScholars(at)GRAMCORD•org D. A. Carson, Founding Chairman. Paul A. Miller, Founding Director.
What is GRAMCORD?
GRAMCORD stands for GRAMmatical conCORDance. That is, GRAMCORD is known for its ability to search not just lexically (i.e. for particular Greek and Hebrew words), but also for grammatical and syntactical characteristics. GRAMCORD does so by means of very detailed databases which provide complete parsing and lexical listing form information for every word of the Greek New Testament, Hebrew Masoretic OT text, and the Greek Septuagint (LXX).
However, even though GRAMCORD is best known for world-renowned scholarly databases and complex search and concordance capabilities, MOST OF OUR USERS MOST OF THE TIME use it for:
For a list of suggested GRAMCORD bundles and itemized contents, visit Help Me Choose!
What do you mean by "GRAMCORD grammatical search"?
In 1976 The GRAMCORD Institute pioneered the concept of using a computer to create a customized GRAMmatical conCORDance of the Greek New Testament. Word concordances -- whether computer-based or in print -- are necessarily limited. Serious study of the Biblical text involves more than just vocabulary; meaning depends upon syntax. How often do commentators make claims about a passage based upon the use of the perfect tense, the voice of a verb, or perhaps a noun phrase in the dative case versus with the genitive? How can one weigh their arguments? How can the reader find corroborating examples -- or conflicting ones? Enter GRAMCORD, the GRAMmatical conCORDance system for the Greek New Testament.
The variety of GRAMCORD searches is almost unlimited. Consider these examples: a comparison of "Jesus Christ" vs. "Christ Jesus" word orders or "the kingdom of God" vs. "the kingdom of heaven"; contexts containing an optative verb or pluperfect verb; all New Testament contexts where EN TO plus aorist infinitive occurs; contexts where there are active/middle voice shifts of the same verb; compound verbs based upon BALLO; verbs of perception in Matthew's Gospel; a classroom handout which contrasts DIA + genitive object with DIA + accusative object (great for learning Greek inductively); a concordance of PERI + feminine article/feminine noun + masculine article/masculine noun where each article/noun pair agrees in number and all five elements appear with non-intervening words; a study of MEN . . . DE as alternating particles; contexts where two participles of the same lemma differ in voice and are joined by KAI; MH with aorist imperative examples; substantival participle of PISTEUO; Granville-Sharpe's Rule; various categories of periphrastics; statistics on the use of verb moods in each book of the New Testament; a concordance of GAR where each context is classified by the position GAR occupies in the clause (second word, third word, etc.); contexts where the verb begins with a KAT- or KATH- prefix.
How does one "ask" GRAMCORD for a concordance?
The GRAMCORD search template allows the user to simply point and click to define the elements being sought. This process includes the use of convenient pull down menus of parsing specifications and word lists. (In fact, GRAMCORD is "smart enough" to only list Greek words which are applicable to the part-of-speech being defined.) In seminary and Bible college contexts, GRAMCORD is ideal for computer lab and library use where entire classes of students must quickly master the system and carry out classroom-assigned exegetical exercises.
Of course, the GRAMCORD research system contains a Greek New Testament database (based upon the NA27/UBS4 text) which includes all parsing information and lexical listing forms (i.e. full lemmatization). (Of course, GRAMCORD Hebrew MT and GRAMCORD LXX are add-on modules which provide similar functions with the OT texts.) For many users, the instant access to basic parsing data and immediate linkage to the lexicon and dictionary definitions is just as valuable as the sophisticated grammatical and syntactical concording power. Of course, the user can route any result or displayed information to a Windows word-processor for further editing, display, and printing.
The accompanying GRAMPLOT utility provides a unique graphical view of the syntactical/lexical information stored in any GRAMCORD concordance file. This screen-based "scatter plot" tool concisely displays the occurrences and densities of Greek New Testament phenomena. The x-axis is ordered by books and chapters; the y-axis scales the construction numbers; "dots" render the locations and types of usage. GRAMPLOT is particularly useful for pattern analysis and even considerations of author style.
GRAMCORD is capable of compiling very simple word & grammar studies for the novice and yet can just as easily build concordances for a professional scholar's most complicated syntactical problem.
The Windows version of GRAMCORD debuted in 1995 but the original GRAMCORD system dates back to 1976 (developed on a university mainframe computer). Today, there are thousands of individual GRAMCORD users world-wide plus over 200 institutions who subscribe to a GRAMCORD Institutional Site License. GRAMCORD remains a publication-quality tool for the Biblical scholars who publish the lexicons, commentaries, and reference works on which we all depend. Now everyone can enjoy access to the same quality tools in a user-friendly and easily mastered environment.
Is this GRAMCORD FOR WINDOWS the same GRAMCORD mentioned in exegesis books, seminary textbooks, and syllabi?
Yes. However, some writers may be referring to Accordance with GRAMCORD for Macintosh or even our old GRAMCORD FOR DOS. Many of the older books and journal articles describing the use of GRAMCORD are referring to the older "classic" GRAMCORD versions but today's versions are capable of the same kinds of research with the advantage of many additional accompanying tools (including the Hebrew MT and LXX).
What factors should I consider when choosing a scholarly Bible Software System?
The CHORUS website has an excellent detailed review which discusses the technical aspects of grammatical concording of which every user should be aware before using such tools. The address for this classic discussion of software tools is: http://www-writing.berkeley.edu/chorus/bible/essays/ntgram.html and is entitled: "Interpretive Implications of Using Bible-Search Software for New Testament Grammatical Analysis" by Harry Hahne. Definitely a must read for anyone considering the use of original language Bible software. Technologies change but certain methodologies remain fundamental.
Help me choose a GRAMCORD for Windows bundle
Just click to our Help Me Choose a GRAMCORD Bundle page.
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